Historians treat the Royal Proclamation of 1763 as an "Indian Bill of Rights." These rights were not granted, but won by Anishnaabe people in a protracted war of resistance.
To understand the politics of Afghanistan in 2021 it is necessary that we understand the country's relationships with the Great Powers. These powerful states have intervened in Afghanistan's civil wars throughout the 20th Century and their interference began much earlier. Our investigation will begin with the contest between two European colonial empires.